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The carriages of Peter (Lordly) Verigin

Updated: Jun 26

During the first two and a half decades of Doukhobor life in Western Canada, Peter Vasil’evich (Lordly) Verigin (1859-1924) spent much of his time travelling between their settlements on Community business. His chief means of local conveyance were horse-drawn carriages, carts and sleighs, dutifully maintained by his followers at key stopping points. But whatever became of them? Remarkably, several of these vehicles still exist today, over a century later. The following article traces their subsequent history and fate to the present day.

Peter V. Verigin stands behind a roadster buggy at Otradnoye village, Sask., c. 1905. Ivan F. Makhortoff, seated, waits to pass Verigin the reigns. (Image C-01582 courtesy of the Royal BC Museum and Archives)

 

Background

 

In the first decades of the 20th century, horses provided the primary means of transportation in western Canada. A single horse could pull a wheeled vehicle and contents weighing as much as a ton. At a walk, a horse-drawn vehicle travelled approximately two to four miles per hour; at a trot, the speed was around eight to 10 miles per hour; horses rarely cantered or galloped with a vehicle.

 

This mode of transportation was not without limitations. Horses required large quantities of feed and water. Their range of travel when drawing a vehicle was between 10-20 miles per day, depending on the terrain, weather, horse and weight of vehicle. In many rural areas, there were still few roads except for rough, uneven trails, which were often impassible when wet.

 

When the Doukhobors first arrived on the Canadian Prairies in 1899, they had few horses and wagons, forcing some Doukhobors to carry heavy supplies on their backs over long distances by foot, and others to hitch themselves to wagons and plows, as human draft animals. [1] Following the arrival of their leader Peter V. Verigin in Canada in December 1902, the Doukhobors communally pooled their earnings to acquire much needed horses and vehicles.

 

Under Verigin’s management, in 1903, the Community purchased 404 horses, 16 wagons, 152 sleighs, as well as two cutters (lightweight, open sleighs holding one or two people) likely for the leader’s personal use. [2] And in 1905, the Community purchased another 30 wagons, 41 sleighs, as well as two buggies probably for Verigin’s personal use. [3] Bulk purchases of horses and horse-drawn vehicles continued thereafter.

Peter V. Verigin seated in a democrat carriage in Fruktovoye west of Grand Forks, 1912. (Image GR-197904-015 courtesy of the Royal BC Museum and Archives)


Peter V. Verigin spent much of his time travelling between neighbouring Doukhobor settlements on Community business, visiting with villagers, and inspecting their progress on various endeavors. His preferred means of conveyance was a horse-drawn carriage — a four or two-wheeled vehicle which was lighter and more maneuverable than a wagon and capable of greater speed and efficiency. The distance between Doukhobor settlements made effective transportation essential to managing the Community.

 

A skilled horseman, Verigin most often drove the carriage himself, typically with a spirited team at breakneck pace! A sense of his energetic driving style can be gleaned from the comments of Nelson realtor Charles F. McHardy, who wrote in 1911: 

We were met at the Kootenay river ferry by Mr. Veregin’s driving team and had one of the swiftest drives we ever had, Mr. Veregin himself driving. I like fast horses but freely admit that I cannot drive as he does. We certainly had to hang on when rounding the curves. He made a point of commenting on my providing him with a quiet horse to ride. I regretted that I had not given him a bucking horse that I thought too bad to take along. [4] 

From time to time and place to place, various types of carriages, carts and sleighs were acquired by the Community for Verigin’s exclusive use. Those which have been documented include the following:

 

  • Democrat or buckboard – a light, four-wheel, flat-bed open carriage with no sideboards or top, leaf spring suspension and with one or two seats, usually drawn by one or two horses;

  • Phaeton – a sporty open four-wheel carriage with a very light-sprung body atop a curved frame with four extravagantly large wheels, pulled by one or two horses;

  • Buggy or roadster – a light, four-wheel, one-seat carriage with low sides, side-spring suspension and a folding top, usually drawn by one or two horses;

  • Brougham or rockaway – a light, four-wheel carriage with one passenger seat in an enclosed body with two doors, and a box seat in front for the driver, leaf spring suspension, drawn by two to four horses;

  • Barouche – a large, heavy, four-wheeled carriage with low sides, a back seat and front box seat for the driver and collapsible half-hood for passengers, curved frame, leaf spring suspension, pulled by one or two horses; and

  • Gig or chaise – a light, two-wheeled, one-seat cart with side-spring suspension, usually driven by one horse.

  • Cutter – a light, open sleigh with a single set of runners and a single seat that held two people, drawn by one horse; and

  • Bobsleigh – an open sleigh with two seats that held up to four people, with dual sets of runners for easier maneuverability, pulled by one or two horses.

 

These vehicles were stored and kept in Community stables and sheds at major centres of Doukhobor settlement: Verigin and Kylemore in Saskatchewan, Cowley and Lundbreck in Alberta and Brilliant and Grand Forks in BC, as well as at commercial centres such as Yorkton, Sask., Nelson and Trail, where Verigin had stopping houses. The vehicles and their horse teams were dutifully maintained by Community members so as to be ready for use upon request. 


After Peter V. Verigin’s death in October 1924, these vehicles were sometimes used by his son and successor Peter P. (Chistyakov) Verigin (1881-1939) following his arrival in Canada in September 1927. However, by then, the automobile had largely supplanted horsepower as the preferred mode of transportation of the leadership. 

 

During the bankruptcy of the Christian Community of Universal Brotherhood, Ltd. in 1936 and its subsequent foreclosure in 1937-38, many of Peter V. Verigin’s carriages, carts, and sleighs like other community assets were presumably liquidated at fire sale prices. Others were likely destroyed by arson. [5] Remarkably, however, at least seven of them have survived and are now part of museum and private collections. These are detailed below.

 

Brougham (rockaway) carriage – Khutor village, Sask.

 

At the Community settlement in Veregin, Michael N. Chernoff (1892-1966) was the official in charge of providing and managing local transportation for Peter V. Verigin from 1912 to 1924. [6] To this end, a fleet of special carriages were always at Verigin’s call whenever needed. These were stored at the Community implement sheds at Veregin and at Khutor village, 2½ miles to the east, where the Community horse herd was kept. [7]   

                                                                

One such carriage that remained at Khutor following the demise of the Community was a Brougham or Rockaway type (manufacturer unknown). Reputedly, it was given to Peter V. Verigin by Canadian government officials as a gesture of good will, shortly after his arrival in Canada in 1902. [8] It can be described as follows:

 

  • Body: grey painted body and cab with red and yellow trim;

  • Seats: open driver’s seat and enclosed interior passenger seat;

  • Cab: royal blue mohair interior upholstery (inside along doors as well) and a dark blue satin ceiling, with six beveled-edge windows (one in back, two on either side), with a partition between the driver’s seat and passengers cab which can be raised or lowered;

  • Headlamps: gas headlamps on either side with square-shaped bevel glass panel on front and outer sides;

  • Wheels: four rubber-rimmed, red wooden-spoked wheels; and

  • Misc: front dashboard; mud guards over the footsteps, double eveners to be attached to four horses. [9]

Peter V. Verigin’s rockaway coach on display at the Western Development Museum in Saskatoon. This picture was featured in The Beaver magazine, December 1951. (Image C-01640 courtesy of the Royal BC Museum and Archives)


Following the breakup of Khutor village in 1938, the Brougham came into the possession of Wasyl A. Chernoff (1909-1995), who kept it covered in a shed and maintained in very good condition. [10] From time to time, Chernoff drove the carriage in community parades and special events in Veregin and Kamsack. [11] 

 

In 1949, Chernoff donated the carriage to the Western Development Museum (WDM), formed the same year, where it was initially exhibited at the Saskatoon branch. When viewed there during a September 1951 museum fundraising drive, then-Lakeview Member of Parliament and future Prime Minister of Canada John Diefenbaker was moved to comment: “It fascinates me. For instance, Peter Verigin’s carriage. I saw him driving in that carriage when I was a boy.” [12] In December 1951, it was featured in The Beaver magazine, which described it as “of beautiful craftsmanship, and one of the most interesting exhibits on display in Saskatoon.” [13]

 

In May 1949 and again in April 1955, the WDM showed the Brougham at the annual Saskatoon Light Horse Show, where it was driven around the ring at the Saskatoon Exhibition Stadium. [14] In June 1955, it was featured in the provincial jubilee parade held in Kamsack, attended by 12,000 people. [15] And in July 1969, it was one of two carriages displayed by the WDM at the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Doukhobors in Canada, held at Veregin. [16]

 

In the 1970s, the carriage was transferred to the WDM Yorkton branch, where it was exhibited on display. In July 1987, through the efforts of George Legebokoff (1921-1995) of Burnaby and Harry Shukin (1928-2005) of Kamsack, the WDM agreed to loan it to the National Doukhobor Heritage Village in Veregin, where it remains on display to the present in the administration building. [17]

 

The carriage remains overall in very good condition; a paint job would give a virtually like-new appearance. 

Peter V. Verigin’s rockaway carriage as it appears today in the National Doukhobor Heritage Village at Veregin, Sask. Western Development Museum Item No. 459


Democrat (buckboard) carriage – Veregin, Sask.

 

Another carriage that survived the break-up of the Community in Veregin was a Democrat or Buckboard type manufactured by Deere & Co. in Winnipeg. Its description is:

 

  • Body: black painted body with no top;

  • Seats: two seats with tufted leather upholstery, both seat cushions removable, the front one covers a small storage compartment, the high rear seat back consists of an upholstered rectangular portion mounted above evenly spaced wood spindles or dowels which extend around sides of seats, flat curved leather armrests on either side of seat, and a leather flap along bottom edge of either seat;

  • Headlamps: lanterns on either side of front seat have square-shaped bevel glass panel on front and right side and small round red glass in back with original silver-colored finish painted over with silver-colored paint;

  • Wheels: four wheels, wheel circumference 98 inches (back), 94 inches (front), rubber rims stamped “John Bull - North Pole Patent - 8 x f-1 1/4 inch,” with white striping on wooden wheel spokes and rims; and

  • Misc: front dashboard; leather dash; metal arm rails, side dash rails and foot rails, with oval high footstep on either side of front and lower square one on either side in rear; whip holder on right side of dash; arched cylindrical steel axles with leaf suspension across either axle. [18]

 

After the death of Peter V. Verigin in 1924, the Democrat was kept in the Community implement shed at Veregin for several years. [19] In 1933, then-Doukhobor leader Peter P. Verigin sold it to Independent Doukhobor Larion E. Konkin (1890-1974) of the Mikado district, who used it for day-to-day driving until 1945. [20]

Peter V. Verigin’s democrat coach at the WDM storage facility in Saskatoon. Western Development Museum Item No 452


In 1949, Konkin donated the carriage to the WDM, formed the same year, where it was housed at the Saskatoon branch. [21] It is unclear whether it was put on public display, although it may have been at one time. It was shown at some public events over the years, such as the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Doukhobors in Canada, held at Veregin in July 1969. [22] Since 1984, it has been housed at the WDM storage facility in Saskatoon. [23]

 

The carriage remains in overall good condition.

 

Gig (chaise) cart – Veregin, Sask.

 

A third horse-drawn vehicle that survived the demise of the Community in Saskatchewan was a gig or chaise-style cart manufactured by the Canada Carriage Company in Brockville. Its description is as follows:

 

  • Body: black painted body (no top) with red running gear, wheels and shafts;

  • Seats: two seats with removable, rectangular, straw-stuffed cushions, upholstered in heavy, black, square-tufted leather with leather-covered buttons, sharing a common back comprised of a high, narrow, leather-covered, rectangular board mounted on two upright metal bars; leather flap along bottom edge of front seat; leather belt strap below rear seat has brass buckle; on either side of seat is an upright, curved, wooden side with metal rails at either end of each;

  • Headlamps: headlamp on either side of front seat has brass rim, round bevel glass front, rectangular bevel glass side and small, round, red, glass opening in back;

  • Wheels: two rubber rimmed wheels, with 190-inch circumference, shafts encased in leather on front third of either side;

  • Misc: front dashboard with metal railing; curved wooden floor board; metal foot rail and whip holder on right side of same; floor area open from dash to back end, the latter is a fold down, hinged end gate that hooks into an angle position to serve as a footboard for rear seat or opening to storage area below seat; high and low foot step on either side of front seat and one step on left side of back; steel axle; leaf spring across back end and side springs on either side. [24]

Peter V. Verigin’s gig cart at the WDM storage facility in Saskatoon. Western Development Museum Item No. 457


Little information as to the provenance of the Gig is available, other than it was used by Peter V. Verigin, it likely came from the Veregin district, and that it was donated to the WDM in 1951. [25] Since 1986, it has been housed at the WDM storage facility in Saskatoon. [26]

 

The cart remains in overall good condition.

 

Barouche carriage – Nelson

 

A surviving barouche-style carriage that Peter V. Verigin used in Nelson was manufactured by McLaughlin-Buick [27] and intended to be drawn by two horses.

 

Anton F. Strelaeff (1890-1935), the Community factotum stationed there in the 1910s and 1920s, would meet Verigin at the train station with it when he arrived in Nelson, even though it was only a couple of blocks from the leader’s residence at 509 Falls St. Verigin reportedly always drove. [28]  

Anton F. Strelaeff tends to Peter V. Verigin’s new barouche coach in Nelson, circa 1910s. This picture reportedly shows Anton bringing the carriage home after its arrival via sternwheeler, but looks to have been taken on Nelson Avenue. (Paul Strelive private collection)


It is unclear whether this carriage was used after Verigin’s death in 1924, but at some point, it was stored and maintained by the Nelson Transfer Co. Ltd. at 323 Vernon St. [29] Later, it ended up in the basement of the Ellison’s Milling warehouse on Front Street, where manager Joseph Kary discovered it in the 1950s and recognized its significance. [30] This was directly across the street from the former Kootenay-Columbia Preserving Works, operated by the Doukhobors from 1911-15. But it’s not known how the carriage’s provenance was established.

 

Subsequently the Nelson Diamond Jubilee committee secured the carriage’s loan and Nelson queen Jane Miller rode in it for a parade in July 1957. [31] A few months later the carriage was donated to the city and placed in the museum at 502 Vernon St. [32]

 

In May 1960, the City of Nelson notified the museum it would be moving city offices onto the main floor of their building, but the museum could use the second floor. That fall, the carriage was dismantled, hoisted through a second-floor window, and reassembled as a centrepiece of a Doukhobor display. At that time, the carriage still had at least one brass lamp that threw off a beam of light when a candle was lit. [33]

 

The museum relocated to Lake Street a few years later and then to Anderson Street in 1974. While the barouche remained part of the collection, the museum no longer had room to display or store it, so it was kept at the Nelson fire hall until the fire department required the space for other purposes. In 2006, the carriage was placed in storage at the former museum site on Anderson Street after the museum moved back to 502 Vernon St. [34]

 

In June 2010, the Nelson Museum offered the carriage to the Doukhobor Discovery Centre in Castlegar where it could receive the visibility and attention it deserved. [35] In 2013, the Doukhobor Discovery Centre received a grant to create a better shelter for the carriage. [36] However, it is seldom on display due to its fragility.

Peter V. Verigin’s barouche carriage as it appears today at the Doukhobor Discovery Centre at Castlegar. (Greg Nesteroff photo)


The carriage can be described as follows:

 

  • Body: black body, canopy (with a piece torn or missing) and undercarriage;

  • Seats: black fabric drivers seat with red exterior metal trim; rear enclosed passenger seat upholstered with leather-covered buttons; upholstery on both seats is severely torn/worn;

  • Headlamps: two original lamps are missing;

  • Wheels: four wheels are intact with carriage shaft, axles, tongue, and spokes; and

  • Misc: driver’s dashboard and carriage steps.

 

The carriage is in relatively weathered condition.

 

Phaeton carriage – Grand Forks

 

At the Community settlement in Grand Forks, several special carriages were kept for Peter V. Verigin’s use when he visited the area. They were stored in a Community barn at Verigin’s residence known as Sirotskoye, located three miles west of the city. There, they were maintained by residence caretaker Sam D. Trofimenkoff (1865-1955) in the 1910s and by Trofimenkoff’s step-son Walter A. Rezansoff (1903-1985) in the 1920s. [37] 

 

One such Community-era carriage at Sirotskoye was a phaeton type manufactured by John Deere Plow Co. Limited in Winnipeg. It can be described as follows:

 

  • Body: black painted body with no top;

  • Seats: raised open driver’s seat and lower rear-facing passenger seat, both upholstered with black leather; removable front seat cushion covers a small storage compartment; double-sided upholstered back cushion between seats; metal arm rails extend around sides of each seat;

  • Headlamps: gas headlamps on either side with round-shaped bevel glass panel on front and square-shaped bevel glass panel on outward-facing side;

  • Wheels: four large rubber-rimmed, black wooden-spoked wheels; and

  • Misc: a fold down, hinged end gate that hooks into an angle position to serve as a foot board for rear seat or opening to storage area below seat; black leather-upholstered driver’s footboard; oval high footstep on either side of front; double eveners to be attached to four horses. [38]

 

After Verigin’s death in 1924, the carriage remained in storage at Sirotskoye, where it was sometimes used by his successor Peter P. Verigin between 1927 and 1939. It continued to be stored after his grandson, John J. Verigin (1921-2008), took up residency at Sirotskoye in 1950.

Peter V. Verigin’s phaeton coach (front) as it appears today in the Boundary Museum. It is hitched to a roadster (behind). (Mathieu Drolet-Duguay photo)


Many decades later, in 2007, the Verigin family removed the phaeton from the Sirotskoye barn and had it restored by the newly-incorporated Boundary Woodworkers Guild. [39] The restoration took four to five years to complete. [40] Thereafter, it was placed on loan at the Boundary Museum & Archives in Grand Forks, where it remains on display to the present at the main building in Fruktova. [41]

 

The carriage remains in overall good condition.

 

Buggy (roadster) carriage – Grand Forks

 

Another carriage at Sirotskoye was a buggy or roadster type (manufacturer unknown). Its description is:

 

  • Body: black painted body with foldable black leather canopy with navy blue and golden fabric interior upholstery;

  • Seats: open driver’s seat with back cushion, rear enclosed passenger’s seat with back cushion; both seats black leather upholstered with leather-covered buttons; removable front seat cushion covers a small storage compartment;

  • Headlamps: none;

  • Wheels: four rubber-rimmed, black wooden-spoked wheels; and

  • Misc: drivers footboard; rear covered storage compartment; oval high footstep on either side of front; double eveners to be attached to four horses. [42] 

 

Interestingly, at some point the roadster was hitched behind the phaeton (described above) and the two were drawn together by two teams of horses with a single driver. [43] This was done to allow more passengers to travel together. The carriages were connected by a short pole or tongue, so that when pulling straight ahead there would only be 20 to 24 inches of space between them. This system required wide turns on corners, one carriage at a time. 

Peter V. Verigin’s roadster buggy (back) as it appears today in the Boundary Museum. It is hitched to a phaeton (front). (Mathieu Drolet-Duguay photo)


Along with the phaeton, the roadster was stored for decades in the Sirotskoye barn until it was removed in 2007, restored by the Boundary Woodworkers Guild and subsequently placed on loan for public exhibition at the Boundary Museum & Archives where it is exhibited today. [44]

 

It also remains in overall good condition.


Bobsleigh – Grand Forks

 

Yet another horse-drawn vehicle at Sirotskoye was a bobsleigh manufactured by Fish Bros. Wagon Co. in Racine, Wisconsin and exported by railcar to British Columbia for resale distribution. It can be described as:


  • Body: black painted body (no top) with red undercarriage and runners. Yellow, green and red decorative scrolling along sides may have been added post-purchase;

  • Seats: two seats with black leather-upholster sides and back cushions with leather-covered buttons; open space under seats for storage;  

  • Runners: dual sets of runners; fixed rear runners, front runners swivel about a central pivot, making it less likely to overturn;

  • Misc: square footstep on either side of front, rectangular footstep on either side of rear; double eveners to be attached to four horses. [45] 

Peter V. Verigin’s bobsleigh in its original condition at Sirotskoye. (Verigin family private collection)


After Peter V. Verigin’s death in 1924, the bobsleigh continued to be stored at Sirotskoye, where it was sometimes used by his successor Peter P. Verigin between 1927 and 1939. It remains in storage with the Verigin family, with a restoration planned.  

 

The bobsleigh is in original condition.


Conclusion

 

The surviving carriages of Peter V. (Lordly) Verigin represent a time gone by in western Canada; a slower, simpler era when horse-power was essential for transport and travel. They also offer a unique window back in time in Doukhobor history and an opportunity to appreciate the quality and workmanship of the vehicles, their communal purpose, the strength and dependability of the horses that drew them, and the skill and horsemanship of their driver.

 

Special thanks to Kaiti Hannah, curatorial associate, Western Development Museum; Phillip Perepelkin, manager, National Doukhobor Heritage Village; Ryan Dutchak, director, Doukhobor Discovery Centre; Mathieu Drolet-Duguay, executive director, Boundary Museum & Archives; Hugo del Aguila, office manager, Boundary Museum & Archives; Paul Beatty, Boundary Woodworkers Guild; Barry Verigin, Union of Spiritual Communities of Christ; Carter Hodgins, Canadian Transportation Museum & Heritage Village; John Stallard, Carriage Association of America.


This story also appears at doukhobor.org/the-carriages-of-peter-lordly-verigin and has been published in the following newspapers and periodicals:


• Canora Courier, April 11, 17, and 24, 2024 (abridged);

West Kootenay Advertiser, April 11, 18, and 25, 2024 (abridge); and

ISKRA No. 2194, April 2024

 

End Notes

[1] See for example: Koozma J. Tarasoff, Plakun Trava (Grand Forks: MIR Publication Society, 1982) at 52-53; Ashleigh Androsoff, “The Trouble with Teamwork: Doukhobor Women’s Plow Pulling in Western Canada, 1899” in Canadian Historical Review, Vol. 100, No. 4, December 2019, at 540-563.

[2] “Report of the General Meeting of the Doukhobor Community held in Nadezhda Village, Feb. 28, 1904” in Yorkton Enterprise, April 21, 1904; https://doukhobor.org/report-of-the-general-meeting-of-the-doukhobor-community-held-in-nadezhda-village-february-28-1904/.

[3] “Report of the General Meeting of the Doukhobor Community held in Nadezhda Village, Feb. 15, 1906” in Manitoba Free Press, April 25, 1906; https://doukhobor.org/report-of-the-general-meeting-of-the-doukhobor-community-held-in-nadezhda-village-february-15-1906/.

[4] Nelson Daily News, Sept. 30, 1911. Similarly, on July 7, 1955, the Grand Forks Gazette reported that: “Mr. Verigin was also a lover of fine horses, and many residents will remember the stirring figure he made while driving a spirited team along valley roads.”

[5] For example, when Peter V. Verigin’s former residence in Brilliant (then occupied by his great-grandson John J. Verigin) was burned down by Sons of Freedom in April 1950, the conflagration destroyed adjoining buildings including a shed likely containing several carriages belonging to the deceased leader: Vancouver Sun, April 14, 1950.

[6] Fred J. Chernoff, The Brothers Chernoff from Azerbaijan to Canada (Winnipeg: self-published, 1992).

[7] Ibid. 

[8] Kaiti Hannah, curatorial associate, Western Development Museum, correspondence with Jonathan J. Kalmakoff.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Philip Perepelkin, manager, National Doukhobor Heritage Village, interview with Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, Sept. 15, 2023.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Saskatoon Star-Phoenix, Sept. 18, 1951. Diefenbaker, who was born in 1895, lived near Fort Carlton from 1903-06, near Borden from 1906-10, and in Saskatoon from 1910-16. He may have viewed Peter V. Verigin driving the carriage whilst visiting the Doukhobor settlements in the Borden, Langham and Blaine Lake districts near Saskatoon. Diefenbaker served as a Member of Parliament for Lake Centre from 1940 to 1953, and for Prince Albert from 1953 to 1979; he served as 13th prime minister of Canada from 1957 to 1963.

[13] L.M. Ackerman, “From the Cradle to the Combine” in The Beaver, A Magazine of the North (Winnipeg: Hudson’s Bay Company, December 1951) at 40-41.

[14] Saskatoon Star Phoenix, May 5, 1949 and April 6, 1955.

[15] Perepelkin, supra, note 10.

[16] Saskatoon Star Phoenix, July 9, 1969.

[17] Perepelkin, supra, note 10.

[18] Hannah, supra, note 8.

[19] Ibid.

[20] Ibid.

[21] Ibid.

[22] Saskatoon Star Phoenix, July 9, 1969.

[23] Hannah, supra, note 8.

[24] Ibid.

[25] Ibid.

[26] Ibid.

[27] “The History of the Verigin Carriage as known by Touchstones Nelson: Museum of Art and History,” Laura Fortier, as told by Shawn Lamb and Alan Ramsden, 2010

[28] Paul Strelive, interview with Greg Nesteroff, Nov. 4, 2009.

[29] “The History of the Verigin Carriage,” supra, note 27.

[30] Ibid.

[31] Nelson Daily News, June 1 and July 9, 1957.

[32] Nelson Daily News, Jan. 17, 1958 and Museum Roundup, April 1965.

[33] Nelson Daily News, Nov. 19, 1960, May 30, 1961, and Museum Roundup, April 1965.

[34] “The History of the Verigin Carriage”, supra, note 27.

[35] Ibid.

[37] Caretakers Sam D. Trofimenkoff, wife Fenya and stepson Walter (Volodmir) A. Rezansoff appear at Sirotskoye in the Canada Censuses of 1911 (Yale District No. 25, Carson Sub-District No. 52, pages 11-12), 1921 (Yale District No. 25, Carson Sub-District No. 52, page 9), and 1931 (Yale District No. 240, Grand Forks Rural Unorganized Sub-District No. 71, page 9). Rezansoff’s involvement with the Sirotskoye carriages is also recalled by Barry Verigin, whose family resides on the property: correspondence with Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, Dec. 3, 2023.

[38] Mathieu Drolet-Duguay, executive director, Boundary Museum & Archives, correspondence with Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, November 30, 2023.

[39] Hugo del Aguila, office manager, Boundary Museum & Archives, interview with Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, March 7, 2024; Verigin, supra, note 37.

[40] Paul Beatty, Boundary Woodworkers Guild, interview with Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, March 7, 2024.

[41] Drolet-Duguay, supra, note 38; Verigin, supra, note 37.

[42] Drolet-Duguay, ibid;

[43] Drolet-Duguay, ibid; Aguila, supra, note 39.

[44] Drolet-Duguay, ibid; Verigin, supra, note 37.

[45] Barry and Stephanie Verigin, correspondence with photographic images to Jonathan J. Kalmakoff, March 14, 2024.

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John J. Verigin with "cowboys" and stagecoach at Grand Forks, early 1970s. (Maybe for the 1967 or 1971 centennial?)

https://arcabc.ca/islandora/object/boundary%3A3542?solr_nav[id]=f49d9ba71a5c62c1e87f&solr_nav[page]=0&solr_nav[offset]=34



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